What is Data

In computing, data is information that has been converted into a form that is efficient for movement or processing. Relative to today’s computers and transmission media, data is information translated into binary digital form. It is expact for data to be used as a singular subject or a plural subject. Raw data is defined as used to describe data in its very basic digital format.

Data is especially pieces of information, usually formatted in a proper way. All software is divided into two different categories: data and programs. Programs are collections of instructions for manipulate and update  data.

Data can exist in a various forms — as numbers or text on parts of paper, as bits and bytes stored in electronic memory, or as facts stored in a person’s brain.

How data is stored

Computers represent data, including video, images, sounds and text, as binary values using patterns of just two numbers: 1 and 0. A bit is the smallest unit of data, and represents just a single value. A byte is eight binary digits long. Storage and memory is measured in megabytes and gigabytes.


Types of data

Growth of the web and smart phones over the past decade led to a surge in digital data creation.  Data now including text, images and video information, as well as log and web activity data. Much of that is unstructured data

The term big data has been used to describe data in the peta byte range or larger. A shorthand take depicts big data with 3Vs — volume, variety and velocity.. Such trends have also spawned greater preoccupation with the social uses of data and data privacy

For example,  in electronic  component interface and network communication, the term data is often defined as “control information,” “control bits,” and same terms to distinguish the main data of a transmission unit.. That is also the case in fields such as finance, marketing, demographics and health.


A database is a collection of information that is proper way so that you can easily accessed, managed and updated.

Data is organized into rows, columns and tables, and it is indexed to create it easier to find similar  information. Computer databases typically contain aggregations of data records or files, such as purchase transactions, product catalogs and stock, and customer profiles.

Typically, a database manager provides users with the ability to control read/write access, specify report generation and analyze usage. Some databases offer ACID (atomicity, consistency, isolation and durability)  to sure that data is consistent and that transactions are complete.

Databases are actually in large mainframes systems, but are also present in smaller distributed workstations and midrange systems, such as IBM’s AS/400 and personal computers. 

Database Management System

A database management system (DBMS) is system software for making and managing databases. The DBMS provides users and programmers with a proper way to create, retrieve, update and manage data. A DBMS makes it sure for end users to create, read, update and delete data in a database. The DBMS basically serves as an interface between the database and end users or application programs, ensuring that data is consistently organized and remains easily used.

The DBMS manages three important things: the data, the database engine that allows data to be accessed, locked and modified — and the database schema, which defines the database’s logical structure. These three essential elements help provide concurrency, security, data integrity and uniform administration procedures. Basically database administration problems help by the DBMS include change management, performance monitoring/tuning and backup and recovery. Different database management systems are also responsible for automated rollbacks, restarts and reprocess as well as the logging and auditing of activities.

The DBMS is very most useful for providing a centralized view of data that can be accessed by multiple users, from various locations, in a controlled manner. A DBMS can limit what data the end user sees, as well as how that end user can view the data, providing various views of a single database schema. End users and software programs are free from having to understand where the data is physically located or on which type of storage media it settle because the DBMS handles all requests.

Data Management Use

With the proliferation of data in organizations, added emphasis has been placed on ensuring data quality by reducing duplication and guaranteeing the most accurate, current records are used. The many steps involved with modern data management include data cleaning, as well as exact transfer load ETL processes for integrating data. Sometimes referred to as “data over data,” that helps administrators and users helpful to understand data and database.

Analytics that combine structured and unstructured data have become useful, as organizations seek to capitalize on such information. Systems for such analytics increasingly strive for real-time performance, so they are built to handle incoming data consumed at high ingestion rates, and to process data stream for immediate use in operations.

Over time, the idea of the database for operations and transactions has been extended to the database for reporting and predictive data analytics. A chief example is the dataware house which is optimized to process questions about operations for business analysts and business leaders. Increasing emphasis on finding patterns and predicting business outcomes has led to the development of data mining techniques. 

Advantages of DBMS

Data is better protected and maintained when it can be shared using a DBMS instead of creating new iterations of the same data stored in new files for every new application. The DBMS provides a central store of data that can be used by multiple users in a controlled way.

The storage and management of data within the DBMS provides:

  • Data abstraction and independence
  • Data security
  • A locking procedure for confluent access
  • An able handler to balance the needs of multiple applications using the same data
  • Robust data integrity capabilities
  • Logging and auditing of activity
  • Simple access using a standard application programming interface
  • Uniform administration procedures for data